Motor aphasia (Broca aphasia, afferent motor aphasia) is a state in which a person loses the ability to use words to express his own thoughts, that is, speech. The formation of speech in humans determines the left hemisphere of the brain.
Due to stroke or heavy head injuriesits functions may be impaired, and the result is complete or partial loss of speech.
How is motor aphasia manifested?
Full or partial aphasia - This is a symptom of a neurological nature. The development of aphasia occurs if the frontal lobe of the left hemisphere of the brain affects the pathological process. The reasons for this are severe injuries, strokes and others. With motor aphasia, the patient's speech activity may be inhibited, unsaturated. A person has a very bad articulation, because of what others understand him poorly. Heavy Broca's motor aphasia sometimes leads to the fact that the patient is difficult to pronounce and combine sounds. Some people are able to make only absolutely incomprehensible sounds to others. Speech recovery in motor aphasia depends on the severity of the lesion and the characteristics of the disease that triggered this symptom. Sometimes for this it is enough to regularly do special exercises.
A person who has a relatively mild afferent motor aphasia often pronounces sentences that consist only of verbs and nounswithout using the service parts of speech. In their sentences, the word order is often violated, the words themselves are used in the wrong form, not correlating with the word next to it. Speech often remains informative, but it gives the impression of its complete illiteracy. A person can insert words that he just heard into sentences, repeat the same words. Besides speech is disturbed reading, letterThe patient is often unable to name objects.
In severe illness, a person can only make strange sounds or communicate exclusively using the words "Yes"and"no". In doing so, he understands spoken language addressed to him.
Patients with aphasia sometimes show changes in their emotional state. They can run into depressed state, often cry, despair. If other forms of aphasia can lead to the fact that a person is not aware of his own condition, then with motor aphasia the patient understands what is happening to him. Therefore, such patients are mostly reluctant to talk.
Among the neurological manifestations that accompany motor aphasia, it should be noted the manifestation of facial muscle weakness on the one hand, sometimes the muscles can be completely paralyzed. In this condition, some movements involving facial muscles, throat, the mouth. The patient's field of vision may differ from normal boundaries.
In addition to motor aphasia in medicine, the following types of aphasia are determined: sensory, amnestic, semanticand dynamic.
At dynamic aphasia there is a so-called defect in speech initiative. There are marked violations of the initiative of speech, spontaneous narrative speech. A person is often silent, although he understands the speech of the people around him.
Acoustic-gnostic sensory aphasia occurs with damage to the posterior third of the left hemisphere. This disorder can also occur in a patient after stroke. With sensory aphasia, there is a lack of differentiation of the phoneme of sound speech. A person does not control his own speech, does not understand what other people say. People with this disorder may be perceived as mentally ill.
Amnestic aphasiamanifested by a violation of the ability to clearly name objects. In this case, the patient remains the ability to describe these objects. Reading and understanding of speech are not disturbed.
Semantic aphasia manifestations of impaired understanding of speech, which is associated with spatial relationships. A person cannot understand the logical and grammatically complex speech structures.
Thus, in patients with aphasia, a number of difficulties associated with this symptom may occur. It is difficult for them to understand what others are talking about, to express their desires and aspirations, to write, to read. Therefore, in everyday life such people can suffer from loneliness and isolation.
Why is motor aphasia manifested?
Most often, a person manifests total aphasia after stroke. Due to ischemic stroke, the upper parts of the central artery of the brain are affected. This, in turn, determines impaired speech activity.
Motor aphasia is manifested due to a variety of brain lesions. Can provoke the development of this symptom. brain formation, brain abscesses, intracranial hemorrhage etc. In more rare cases, motor aphasia occurs with encephalitis, leukoencephalitis, Pick disease.
Extensive aphasia occurs with serious damage to the human brain.
How to cure motor aphasia?
Fully restore speech with aphasia, which provoked stroke either serious head injury, in most cases difficult. Nevertheless, the correct treatment of aphasia after a stroke and subsequent rehabilitation in many cases allows you to return communication skills.
If the patient manifests this symptom, then initially a comprehensive examination of aphasia should be carried out, to determine what caused this symptom. As a rule, it is impossible to restore a patient's speech with aphasia in a short period of time. Sometimes this takes several years. The effectiveness of recovery depends on a number of factors. First of all, the reason that led to the manifestation of this symptom is important, as well as severity of damage, brain locationthat has been damaged general health and his age.
If motor aphasia develops as a result of a stroke, then a week after a stroke, subject to a favorable development of the situation, one should begin to talk with a person. But it is always necessary to remember that the patient in this state is unusually weakened. Therefore, you need to talk with him every day for no more five minutes. Gradually, such classes become longer.
If a person has mild speech impairment, then you need to speak with him clearly, clearly, but at the same time raise only those topics that cause positive emotions in a person. It is not necessary to encourage the patient if he tries to use only gestures and facial expressions in communication instead of speech. Everything should be done to stimulate the patient to pronounce words.
At more severe aphasia this type of patient is not always able to pronounce at least a syllable. In this case, the most effective speech training is ordinal account, singing, that is, that speech activity that is as automated as possible. Initially, the patient needs to regularly sing a familiar song, later - to encourage and stimulate all his attempts to sing or repeat the text, even if they are not too distinct.
There are many practical exerciseswith the help of which a person suffering from motor aphasia can gradually restore speech. You should never force events, achieving purity of pronunciation and clarity of sounds. Therefore, it is not necessary to constantly correct all the words that the patient said.
When communicating with a person who suffers from aphasia, you need to show tolerance and tolerance. You never need to equate problems with speech activity with mental retardation and talk with the patient as with an unconscious child or with a mentally ill.
Relatives of the patient are advised to simplify as much as possible those sentences that are addressed to the person, if necessary, repeat important phrases several times. It is important to always try to attract a sick person to the conversation and encourage him to talk.
Modern doctors widely use methods based on the use of computer capabilities, which allows you to do exercises to restore speech with maximum effect.