Stomatitis- This is a disease of the mucous membrane in the oral cavity that is inflammatory in nature. The disease is the result of a defensive reaction. immunityon the action of a variety of stimuli. Inflammation of the oral cavity is often manifested in children, however, at present, such inflammation is also characteristic of adult patients, as unfavorable environmental conditions and mass deterioration of the immune system function affect people's health.
The causes, symptoms and features of the treatment of stomatitis, as well as what types of this disease are determined by specialists, will be discussed in this article.
What is stomatitis?
This is currently a common problem among the population. At the same time, many patients who develop stomatitis for the first time, what it is, they learn only after contacting a doctor. It is important that inflammation of the oral cavity is detected in a timely manner so that adequate treatment is carried out. Therefore, if a person has a white spot on the inside of the lip, there is pain and discomfort, you need to quickly consult a specialist.
Causes of Stomatitis
Wikipedia suggests that often the causes of stomatitis in adults are associated with the negative effects of a number of bacteria, viruses, infectious pathogens leading to oral ulcers. Nevertheless, answering the question of what this disease appears from, it should be taken into account that for the propagation of pathogenic microflora additional factors are necessary that provoke the development of the disease. Indeed, in a normal state of health in a person, bacteria are constantly on the oral mucosa and do not cause negative processes.
Therefore, determining what causes stomatitis, experts identify a number of reasons:
- Unbalanced diet - poor nutrition, in which the body does not enter in sufficient quantities B vitamins, iron, zinc and etc.
- Injuries- if trauma of thermal, mechanical, chemical origin occurred in the oral cavity (irritation, burns and blisters, a person bit the skin from the inside, other mucous membrane injuries occurred). In particular, the cause of stomatitis is often a bite of the cheek, a wound left by a sharp fragment of a tooth, and a wound with solid food. Most often, such an injury passes without a trace, but sometimes, in the presence of other negative factors, a sore develops.
- Ignoring the principles of personal hygiene, consumption of dirty fruits and vegetables, untimely washing of hands.
- Substandard dentures (improperly selected prosthetic material, poorly installed prostheses).
- Excessive enthusiasm for dental hygiene, in particular, if you use toothpaste, which includes sodium lauryl sulfate. Under its influence, salivation decreases, which ultimately leads to dehydration of the oral cavity. Such abuse leads to the fact that the mucous membrane becomes susceptible to the influence of acids, etc.
- The use of certain drugs - if a person takes drugs that reduce the production of saliva, as well as diuretic tablets.
- Mouth ulcers often appear if a person is used to smoking continuously and regularly consuming alcohol.
- The disease develops after chemotherapy, radiation, the use of other methods of treating malignant diseases.
- The disease occurs against a background of concomitant ailments. If the functions of a certain system are violated in the body, the appearance of a sore may be evidence that human health is impaired. For example, sometimes it turns out that patients have developed malignant tumors of the pharynx, neck, nose, etc.
- With diseases of the digestive system, infection wormssores in the tongue and in the oral cavity may be noted.
- May result from dehydration after prolonged vomiting, diarrhea, significant loss of blood, fever(prolonged fever).
- HIV infected people have an increased risk of developing this disease.
- During the period menopause, of pregnancy sores may appear as a result of hormonal surges.
- In people who get sick diabetesAphthous stomatitis often develops.
- Those who suffer bronchial asthma and, accordingly, applies hormones in the inhaler, a candida type of disease manifests itself.
- Frequent manifestations are noted with anemia.
- The development of the disease is possible after tooth extraction.
Stomatitis in the mouth, classification
Mouth ulcers, causes and treatment are determined, first of all, depending on the causative agent of the disease. There is a certain classification of the disease, depending on what pathogen became the reason why white spots appeared. What stomatitis in the mouth looks like also depends to some extent on the pathogen.
|Type of disease||Description|
|Bacterial||Manifested due to action staphylococcusor streptococcus. With this form of the disease, a purulent rash appears (it is easy to see in the photo), which subsequently quickly opens. As a result, ulcers and erosion in the mouth are formed.|
|Viral||The result of the defeat of the herpes simplex virus (herpes stomatitis) Epstein-Barra (herpetic stomatitis). Such pathogens provoke the appearance of bubble rashes, which contain a clear liquid. Secondary attachment of a secondary bacterial infection is later noted. Then they are opened, and erosion appears. Similar mouth ulcers also appear with HIV. How to treat wounds, the doctor determines, finding out the cause of the disease.|
|Fungal (candida stomatitis)||It usually appears after the course antibioticswith which the patient is trying to cure other diseases. Fungal stomatitis in the mouth, the photo of which clearly shows a dense white coatingappears due to the action that Candida fungus has. After removal of white plaque in the mouth, painful erosion is observed on the tonsils.|
|Ray||A consequence of radiation sickness also develops after chemotherapy. A patient develops erosion in the oral cavity, and mucous membrane thickens in certain areas.|
|Chemical||The result of burns that acid or alkali produces. Later, scarring and deformation of the mucosa occurs.|
|Erosive||It appears after past illnesses and is characterized by the occurrence of erosion.|
Also, depending on concomitant diseases, emit syphilitic, streptococcalstomatitis.
Symptoms of stomatitis
As a rule, the symptoms of stomatitis are the same for any of the types of disease described above. Most often, symptoms in adults are manifested neostro. There are no signs of degenerate intoxication - high fever, etc. As a rule, the onset of the disease occurs after the appearance of slight redness - these are the first signs of the disease. Further, the area near the lesion becomes edematous, it swells, pain and burning appear.
With the bacterial form of the disease, the next day a round or oval sore with smooth edges appears at the site of the outbreak, and a red spot - a halo around. In the center of the ulcer is a thin white film.
In addition, the patient is worried about strong salivation, gum bleedingbad breath is noted. The pain bothers constantly and is so intense that it interferes with normal chewing, moving lips and tongue.
In the acute course of the disease, body temperature rises sharply, may increase lymph nodeor several lymph nodes. Pimples with stomatitis are mainly localized on the inner side of the lips - upper and lower, on the tonsils, in the sky. Acne can also appear on the tongue, underneath.
Stomatitis in adults
Before starting treatment for stomatitis in adults, the doctor must establish a diagnosis and determine which diseases of the oral cavity occur in a particular case.
Symptoms of all types of stomatitis in adults (herpetic, aphthous, herpes, ulcerative) appear gradually. Initially, mild redness, swelling appears on the mucosa. Next, an ulcer occurs, the main signs of which are as follows:
- single, round or oval, shallow;
- a thin loose white or gray film in the center of the ulcer;
- smooth edges, reddish halo;
- the ulcer is painful and creates tangible discomfort.
Such oral diseases usually last 4-14 days. The causes of frequent stomatitis in adults are described above, but if a person has had this disease once, then the likelihood of a recurrence of the disease is high. Sometimes symptoms thrushin the mouth in adults and other types of stomatitis appear periodically, acquiring a virtually chronic form. In this case, the doctor should determine the symptoms and treatment in adults of this disease, prescribing medications only after a thorough study.
There is currently no evidence that stomatitis is contagious. However, the latter does not apply to some of its forms.
If on the mucous membrane or on the tongue catarrhal stomatitis, associated with a violation of hygiene rules, provided that it is mild, you can treat the disease yourself, first, finding out how to treat stomatitis, from a specialist.
Must be respected diet- It is important to exclude spicy, salty, as well as too cold or hot, solid foods from the diet. It is recommended to practice rinsing, for which antiseptic solutions are used.
Treatment of stomatitis in adults
Before treating stomatitis in adults, it is necessary to determine exactly what form of the disease occurs.
In the case of a massive lesion of the oral cavity or with the development of serious forms of the disease, the doctor determines how to treat stomatitis in adults after a thorough examination. It is very important not to make an independent decision how to treat stomatitis in the mouth in adults, during pregnancy.
If the patient is diagnosed candida, aphthous or ulcerative stomatitis, treatment should consist of a set of measures that allow you to quickly remove the discomfort and pain. It is important to prevent the occurrence of relapses, the transition of the disease into a chronic form.
How to treat stomatitis in the mouth
When prescribing a medicine, the causes of the development of the disease are taken into account. Adult patients are prescribed a range of drugs: resorption tablets, rinses, ointment, sprays, gels, etc. However, if a person is worried about severe pain that worsens the quality of life, the doctor recommends taking pain medication for stomatitis in the mouth in adults.
In particular, it is recommended to use anesthetics. These are pills to make powder Anestezin, pills Hexoral Tabssolutions Chlorhexidineand Benzocaine. Gel is also used Lidochlor - a strong drug, anesthetizing 5 minutes after administration.
It is advisable to choose a spray, a bubble with which is convenient to use throughout the day. This means Hexoral, Lugol, Ingalipt, Vinylin, Cametonin the form of a spray. Anesthesia, treatment and prevention are carried out using calendula, chamomile, Kalanchoe juice to rinse decoctions.
Specifically, with what to treat stomatitis in the mouth in adults, the doctor determines after examination and research.
Candida stomatitis treatment
This kind of disease is mainly observed in weakened people suffering diabetes, tuberculosis, in patients with HIV infection, those who have been treated with steroid hormones.
Fungal stomatitis manifests itself due to the action of the fungus Candida. Therefore, the complex treatment of adults in this case includes a number of measures. In particular, local and oral antifungal agents are prescribed: Nystatin, Fluconazole, Levorin, Clotrimazole, Irunin.
In this case, you need to go to the doctor for the appointment of a specific drug - you cannot select any medication yourself. Affected surfaces must be treated topically. levorinova or nystatin ointments, Miconazole.
It is advisable to treat affected surfaces and dentures with soda solution, Iodinol, Lugolem, Lugol spray.
It is equally important to adhere to a diet, since nutrition affects the patient's condition. To restore microflora in the menu of children and adults should not be easily digestible carbohydrates.
Treatment of aphthous stomatitis
How to treat this form of the disease depends on the degree of damage. Sometimes after prescribing a therapy regimen, aphthous stomatitis is treated in adults at home.
With the aphthous form, the appearance of lesions occurs against the background of a decrease in immunity. Only specialists can determine why mouth ulcers appeared, causes and treatment, as some of them believe that the causes of this type of disease are associated with mucosal lesions of a herpes infection. In the chronic form of the disease, white sores in the adult's mouth appear periodically and occur on the cheeks, on the inside of the lip, sometimes in the throat.
With aphthous stomatitis, a person can notice both single manifestations (for example, a white sore appeared on the gum), and multiple. In contrast to herpetic stomatitis with aphthous, rounded white plaques appear, that is, aphthae with a red rim, which is noticeable in the photo. If once again a white sore appeared in the mouth, how to treat it depends on whether stomatitis has turned into a chronic form. The disease can last for years, so it is important to immediately determine how to treat mouth ulcers.
With an aphthous form of the disease, treatment is carried out in stages. Initially, aft treatment is carried out, for which a solution of boric acid and a decoction of chamomile are used. An antiseptic rinse is also carried out with a solution, which was recommended by a specialist. For example, you can rinse your throat and mouth with a weak solution. potassium permanganateor Furatsilina. You can do other rinses. Practiced intravenously sodium thiosulfate with the goal of desensitization and detoxification. Those who are diagnosed with this disease of the oral mucosa are prescribed Prodigiosan, Lysozyme, Pyrogenal. Means Lidocaine Asept The composition contains a local anesthetic and is effective in the aphthous form of the disease.
Multivitamins, antihistamines, sedatives are also prescribed.
Since aphthous stomatitis develops in people suffering from diseases of the nervous, endocrine, digestive systems, relapse stomatitis can be prevented by treating these diseases.
Treatment of catarrhal stomatitis
The clinic of this form is such that for successful treatment it is necessary to eliminate the cause of its manifestation. If the affected areas appear on the mucosa, they must be carefully treated with antiseptic solutions - Miramistin, Chlorhexidine. The use of applications with lidocaine or benzocaine in severe pain is practiced.
Widely used Metrogil Denta and others, which can be anointed with defeat after the appointment of this remedy. If after taking these funds the condition does not improve, it is advisable to go to the hospital. For the treatment period, you should abandon the toothbrush so as not to irritate the gums.The use of folk remedies is also practiced: sea buckthorn oil, honey, etc. help from stomatitis.
Treatment of herpetic stomatitis
This type of disease manifests itself most often, because the carrier of the virus herpesis the vast majority of the population. However, stomatitis on the lip or in other parts of the mucosa appears when a person has a deterioration in immunity.
The disease does not cause acute reactions, so often a person notices the disease, when ulcers appear, the palate in the mouth hurts. The causes and treatment of the disease should be determined by the doctor. However, people who have a "white sore" often try to independently practice the treatment of ulcers on the lips inside.
Viral stomatitis often appears under the tongue. With this form of the disease, the following treatment regimen is practiced.
Anesthetics are initially prescribed to relieve pain. Local medications that reduce inflammation are also advisable:
- Bonaphthon Ointment.
These funds are applied to the affected points. Sometimes a doctor prescribes antiviral drugs:
To prevent the disease from becoming chronic stomatitis, the use of immunostimulants and vitamin complexes is indicated.
It should be taken into account the fact that sores in the mouth of this type are contagious and can be transmitted through close contact, for example, through a kiss. Therefore, if a person has a bladder on the gum, or a white sore in his mouth, how to treat and what its nature is, a specialist should determine. It is not necessary to deal with such manifestations on your own - smear with brilliant green, drink antibiotics, and practice other unconfirmed methods.
Allergic stomatitis treatment
About a third of the population exhibit a variety of allergic reactions associated with the action of certain allergens. It is with them that stomatitis in the tongue or in other places of the mucosa can be associated.
In this case, the cause of the sore is contact with dentures, medicines, etc. Since this manifestation is not considered a separate disease, how to treat an ulcer in the tongue, and how to treat a wound, depends on the nature of the allergic reaction.
Treatment in adults comes down to the use of antihistamines - Suprastin, Tsetrina, Tavegila. Prevention comes down to eliminating the allergen.
The so-called prosthetic stomatitis, which is usually divided into the following types: allergicand bacterial. In the case of a bacterial form, stomatitis on the gum is manifested by redness of the mucous membrane of the prosthetic bed. With an allergic form, redness can spread further, for example, stomatitis in the throat is manifested, etc.
Ulcerative stomatitis, treatment
What to do with stomatitis depends on its shape. The ulcerative form manifests itself, like a number of others, against the background of a deterioration in immunity, poor oral hygiene, etc. At the same time, a number of unpleasant symptoms are noted - the appearance of ulcers, bad breath, and fever. If such stomatitis is manifested in the sky or the place where the pimple used to be inflamed and hurts elsewhere in the mucous membrane, it is necessary to determine initially why ulcers appeared in the mouth and then how to treat the disease.
A mild form of the disease can be cured with local remedies. It will be enough to practice a sparing diet and heavy drinking, polish the sharp edges of the teeth and remove tartar. For rinsing, practice the use of solutions hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidine, furatsilina, also decoctions of herbs. To speed up the process of epithelization, regenerative agents are prescribed.
If the disease does not go away after a few days, but lasts a long time, detoxification and antibacterial treatment are practiced. Sometimes vitamins, general treatment, physiotherapy are also prescribed. If the lesion that has become inflamed is treated in a timely manner, then the ulcers close after 6-8 days. If the disease lasts for a long time, then its transition to a chronic form is likely.
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MedicationAnestezinChlorhexidine BigluconateLugolIngaliptVinylinCametonHexoralNystatinFluconazoleClotrimazoleMiconazoleLevorinIodinolFuratsilinMiramistinMetrogil DentaStomatidineActoveginAcyclovirZovirax
Prevention of stomatitis
Reviews indicate that with proper prevention, the manifestations of this disease can be avoided. It should be borne in mind that the cost of preventing a disease is much lower than the cost of treatment. In most cases, the best means of prevention is proper oral hygiene and timely treatment of infectious and chronic ailments.
To subsequently not torment stomatitis, people with dentures need to maximize their size. This disease is less common in those who quit smoking and alcohol abuse. It is important to take measures to strengthen immunity by doing this not one week or a month, but taking full courses of vitamins, minerals, etc. Another important point is to know where the dentist’s office is and regularly visit it for preventive examinations.
Complications of Stomatitis
In order to get rid of unpleasant symptoms in a timely manner and avoid complications, you need to know what stomatitis is and how to treat it. If it appears on the mucous membrane - on the lips on the back side, on the cheek on the inside, a white sore, it is necessary to take measures to eliminate the disease. Treatment should be practiced for as long as the doctor prescribed.
Particular attention should be paid to stomatitis during pregnancy. In this case, you need not only to get clear information about how to treat stomatitis during pregnancy, but also to determine the cause of the disease and, if possible, eliminate it.
With the right approach to therapy, the disease is not dangerous. But if the patient does not know which doctor treats this disease, and what to do, the disease can flow into a chronic form. Treatment of inflammation of the palate at home can also be dangerous.
Often with stomatitis (stomatitis on the gums, etc.) as a complication develops gum bleeding. Also possible tooth lossthe development of a secondary infection. Lesions on the glands may be noted, angina. With advanced forms of the disease in humans, hoarseness and hoarsenesslater - chronic laryngitis.
In women, persistent fungal stomatitis can lead to development candidiasisgenitals. The most serious complication is infection of the whole organism.
Therefore, to take the disease lightly and write messages on the non-specialized forums such as “bit your cheek, ulceration, how to treat” or ask non-specialists whether it is possible to smear ulcers with green, should not be categorically. It is important to know what this disease looks like, which doctor treats this disease.
List of sources
- Rabinovich I.M. Recurrent herpetic stomatitis / I.M. Rabinovich, O.F. Rabinovich, M.V. Razzhivina. - M .: GEOTAR-Media, 2005.
- Lutsk. N. K. Diseases of the oral mucosa / N. K. Lutskaya. - M .: Medical literature. 2006;
- Diseases of the oral mucosa / N.F. Danilevsky, V.K. Leont'ev, A.F. Nesin, J.I. Rahny. M .: Dentistry, 2001;
- Barer G.M. Therapeutic dentistry: Textbook. M .: Geotar-Media; 2005;
- Dmitrieva L.A., Maksimovsky Yu.M. Therapeutic Dentistry: National Guide. M .: GEOTAR-Media; 2009.