Diets

Diet for polyps in the gallbladder

General rules

Gallbladder Polyps represent a benign pathological proliferation of the mucous membrane of the gallbladder. Polyps can be either single or multiple (polyposis). Distinguish true polyps (adenomatous polyps and papilloma) and "pseudo-polyps" - cholesterol polyp - deposits cholesterol on the mucous membrane and inflammatory polyp - expressed by the growth of the epithelium, as a result of the inflammatory process.

The clinical picture depends on the size of the polyps and their localization. Most patients have asymptomatic carriage of polyps or with a slight discomfort in the right hypochondrium / upper abdomen or pain after heavy intake of fatty foods. In cases of localization of the polyp in the neck of the gallbladder and its large size, the symptomatology is more pronounced and manifests itself as a periodic intense pain syndrome in the right hypochondrium. Polyps in the gallbladder are often diagnosed against the background biliary dyskinesiachronic cholecystitis, gallstone disease. As with single polyps, and with polyposis of the gallbladder, the main danger lies in the high frequency (from 10 to 33%) of their malignancy (degeneration into a malignant tumor).

Treatment of polyps is determined by its size and growth dynamics:

  • Polyps with a size of 10 mm or more, especially against the background of the presence of stones and with violations of the outflow of bile, are subject to mandatory surgical removal (cholecystectomy).
  • With a polyp less than 10 mm - monitoring it in dynamics (ultrasound once every three months). With an increase in size, as well as the appearance of new polyps, prompt removal is necessary.

With small sizes of polyps and lack of expression of symptoms, the patient is recommended to switch to dietary nutrition. The diet for polyps in the gallbladder is based on the classic therapeutic Table number 5 according to Pevzner, whose goal is to ensure sparing of the liver and gall bladder, normalization of fat / cholesterol metabolism, as well as the process of outflow of bile while providing the patient with the physiological norm of all food macro / micronutrients.

The calorie content of the daily diet varies between 2800-2850 kcal (90 g of protein, 350-400 g of carbohydrates and 75-80 g of fat). The diet provides for the restriction of salt intake to 7-10 g / day, free fluid - at the level of 1.5 liters. For cooking, gentle methods of culinary processing of products are used - cooking, stewing, baking. Cooking by frying is not allowed.

All foods and dishes with a high content of extractives, purine bases and essential oils are limited in the diet - concentrated broths on meat, fish, dried, fried and smoked products, fatty meat, cottage cheese, egg yolks, animal liver, brains, baker's yeast, sprats, herring, sardines, tuna, salmon caviar, sausages, lard, dried porcini mushrooms, mussels, shrimps, canned food, cooking fats, spices, salted, pickled foods, horseradish, mustard, all kinds of radishes, pickled vegetables, turnips, radish, onion flaxseed, garlic.

Excluded are products that promote fermentation / decay (white cabbage, legumes, millet, rye bread), sour fruits / berries (cranberries, citrus fruits, sour varieties of apples and plums), as well as confectionery products with cream, coffee, chocolate, ice cream, cocoa, gas drinks, alcohol.

Dietary varieties of red meat (beef, veal) and meat of chicken, turkey, rabbit should be present in the diet. Fish can only be eaten lean and infrequently (up to 3 times a week). It is important that a sufficient amount of foods containing pectins, fiber and lipotropic compounds - a variety of vegetables and fruits, cereals.

The vegetable list of products is diverse: almost all vegetables used (except prohibited) are boiled / baked, as well as sauerkraut. Fruits and berries can be consumed in any form. In addition to fiber, lipid-containing effects have a pronounced effect on products containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, lycetin and phytosterols, which are found in sufficient quantities in linseed, corn, olive, sunflower and other vegetable oils.

It is allowed to include crackers / stale wheat bread, protein steamed omelettes, soups with boiled cereals / vegetarian soups with vegetables, low-fat / semi-fat cottage cheese, diluted milk, sour-milk products, butter in ready meals (up to 20 g / day), cereals from rice, buckwheat, oatmeal, oats, cooked on the water, ripe fruits (baked and mashed in raw form), jelly, honey, marmalade, sugar, jelly, jam, marshmallow. Rosehip infusion, tea with lemon and sugar, sweet juices, weak coffee, green tea are useful as drinks.

Diet for polyps in the gallbladder after their removal, regardless of the type of surgical intervention (traditional cholecystectomy or laparoscopy) is an essential component of the healing process. The most important is the period in the first days after surgery. Within 4-6 hours after the removal of polyps, the use of any liquid is prohibited - you can only moisten the patient’s lips with water, and after 5-6 hours it is allowed to rinse your mouth with herbal infusions.

In the period 12-24 hours after the operation, you can give the patient a drink of 1-2 sips every 10-20 minutes with a total volume of up to 500 ml in the form of table still water. On the second day after surgery, the diet expands due to unsweetened tea, low-fat kefir, and jelly in portions of 250 ml with a frequency of 1 time / 3 hours to 1.5 l / day.

The next day, the reception of mashed soups on vegetable broth, semi-liquid mashed potatoes, steam omelet from egg whites, boiled grated low-fat fish, fruit jelly and low-fat sour cream is allowed. Servings 150-200 g, 7-8 times a day. As a liquid, tea with sugar, apple / pumpkin juices. From the 5th day it is allowed to eat dry wheat bread (up to 100 g), biscuit cookies, and for 6-7 days - mashed oat / buckwheat cereal, vegetable puree, chopped boiled fish / meat, low-fat sour-milk products, mashed cottage cheese.

From 8-9 days, the patient is transferred to diets No. 5a, 5c, depending on the condition of the patient and the severity of symptoms. A characteristic feature of these diets is their low calorie daily diet to the level of 1600-1700 kcal (55-65 g of protein, 250-300 g of carbohydrates and 40-50 g of fat).

All dishes are cooked with the addition of unsalted butter: mucous cereal soups, mashed steamed meat, boiled fish, thoroughly mashed cereals with semi-liquid consistency including low-fat milk, jelly, dried bread, wheat / crackers, jelly / jelly, low-fat cottage cheese. Food after removal of polyps is fractional, at least 5 times, servings not more than 200 g, without salt.

The amount of free fluid is about 2.5 l / day. In the absence of complications and normal health, the patient is transferred to the base Diet number 5, which is recommended for 3-6 months.

Indications

  • Diet number 5A - on 8-10 days after the removal of polyps.
  • Diet number 5V - with severe inflammation after cholecystectomy.
  • Diet number 5 - in the preoperative period and in the recovery stage after surgery, after Diet 5A.

Allowed Products

The diet for polyps in the gallbladder in the preoperative period and in the recovery stage after their removal includes dried wheat / white crackers, with good tolerance - rye bread or made from peeled flour. Soups are prepared on weak vegetable broths with the addition of vegetables, cereals and vermicelli, with the addition of unsalted butter or low-fat sour cream without frying.

For the preparation of second courses, it is recommended to use veal, lean beef, rabbit, poultry (chicken, turkey) in boiled / baked form, chopped or a piece. The diet can include low-fat species of white river / sea fish with vegetables, boiled seafood. Vegetables are baked, boiled or steamed and served in the form of salads, vinaigrettes, caviar, seasoned with vegetable oils or sour cream.

Chicken eggs - exclusively in the form of steam omelettes or boiled soft-boiled, preferably without yolks. The diet should contain low-fat sour-milk products: kefir, acidophilus, yogurt, bold curd (in the form of casseroles and natural). Milk is allowed to be used only as an additive in dishes, tea. Sour cream and butter - as a seasoning for ready meals.

Grains should boil well. From spices, you can use garden greens and add cinnamon to sweet dishes. As a dessert, non-acidic fruits / berries in any form, marmalade, jam, honey can be included in the diet. Sugar is better partially replaced by xylitol. Use sufficient free liquid mainly in the form of tea / coffee with milk, rosehip infusion, vegetable / fruit juices, mineral still water.

Approved Product Table

Proteins, gFats, gCarbohydrates, gCalories, kcal

Vegetables and greens

eggplant1,20,14,524
zucchini0,60,34,624
cabbage1,80,14,727
broccoli3,00,45,228
carrot1,30,16,932
cucumbers0,80,12,815
salad pepper1,30,05,327
parsley3,70,47,647
iceberg lettuce0,90,11,814
tomatoes0,60,24,220
pumpkin1,30,37,728
dill2,50,56,338

Fruits

bananas1,50,221,895
apples0,40,49,847

Nuts and dried fruits

raisins2,90,666,0264
dried figs3,10,857,9257
dried apricots5,20,351,0215
dried apricots5,00,450,6213
prunes2,30,757,5231

Cereals and cereals

buckwheat4,52,325,0132
oatmeal3,24,114,2102
barley porridge3,10,422,2109
rice6,70,778,9344

Flour and Pasta

pasta10,41,169,7337
buckwheat noodles14,70,970,5348

Bakery products

bran bread7,51,345,2227
whole grain bread10,12,357,1295

Confectionery

jam0,30,263,0263
jelly2,70,017,979
marshmallows0,80,078,5304
milk sweets2,74,382,3364
candy fondant2,24,683,6369
fruit and berry marmalade0,40,076,6293
paste0,50,080,8310
maria cookies8,78,870,9400

Raw materials and seasonings

honey0,80,081,5329
sugar0,00,099,7398

Milk products

kefir 1.5%3,31,53,641
fermented baked milk2,84,04,267

Cheeses and cottage cheese

cottage cheese17,25,01,8121
cottage cheese 1%16,31,01,379

Meat products

beef18,919,40,0187
rabbit21,08,00,0156

Sausages

cooked diet sausage12,113,50,0170
cooked milk sausage11,722,80,0252
dairy sausages12,325,30,0277

Bird

boiled chicken breast29,81,80,5137
boiled chicken drumstick27,05,60,0158
boiled turkey fillet25,01,0-130

Eggs

Soft boiled chicken eggs12,811,60,8159

Fish and seafood

flounder16,51,80,083
pollock15,90,90,072
cod17,70,7-78
hake16,62,20,086

Oils and Fats

butter0,582,50,8748
olive oil0,099,80,0898
sunflower oil0,099,90,0899

Soft Drinks

water0,00,00,0-
mineral water0,00,00,0-
green tea0,00,00,0-

Juices and compotes

apricot juice0,90,19,038
carrot juice1,10,16,428
peach juice0,90,19,540
plum juice0,80,09,639
tomato juice1,10,23,821
pumpkin juice0,00,09,038
rosehip juice0,10,017,670
* data are per 100 g of product

Fully or partially restricted products

The diet for polyps in the gallbladder involves the exclusion from the diet of foods and dishes containing a large number of extractives, purine bases and essential oils that stimulate the secretion of the digestive tract - concentrated broths on meat, fish, smoked, dried or fried foods, all types of fatty meat , egg yolks, waterfowl meat, sausages, offal (animal liver, kidneys, brains), salmon caviar, cooking fats, baker's yeast, sardines, sprats, herring, tuna, bacon, lard, mushrooms, horseradish, mustard tsu, seafood, canned food, spices, salted, pickled products, all kinds of radish, pickled vegetables, turnips, garlic, radishes, onions, spinach.

Excluded from the diet are fried and hard-boiled chicken eggs, fresh bread, puff pastry, fried pies, pastries, cakes, muffins, whole fat milk and cream, all legumes and vegetables containing coarse fiber - radish, radish, turnip.

Spicy seasonings and spices, margarine and mayonnaise are not allowed. Strong black coffee, cocoa, Pepsi, cola, chocolate, alcohol-containing drinks are excluded from the diet.

Prohibited Products Table

Proteins, gFats, gCarbohydrates, gCalories, kcal

Vegetables and greens

canned vegetables1,50,25,530
swede1,20,17,737
peas6,00,09,060
onion1,40,010,441
chickpeas19,06,061,0364
radish1,20,13,419
white radish1,40,04,121
beans7,80,521,5123
horseradish3,20,410,556
spinach2,90,32,022
sorrel1,50,32,919

Berries

grape0,60,216,865

Mushrooms

mushrooms3,52,02,530
marinated mushrooms2,20,40,020

Nuts and dried fruits

nuts15,040,020,0500
almond18,657,716,2645

Snacks

potato chips5,530,053,0520

Flour and Pasta

vareniki7,62,318,7155
dumplings11,912,429,0275

Bakery products

sweet buns7,99,455,5339

Confectionery

pastry cream0,226,016,5300
shortbread dough6,521,649,9403

Ice cream

ice cream3,76,922,1189

Chocolate

chocolate5,435,356,5544

Raw materials and seasonings

mustard5,76,422,0162
mayonnaise2,467,03,9627

Milk products

milk 4.5%3,14,54,772
cream 35% (fatty)2,535,03,0337
whipped cream3,222,212,5257

Cheeses and cottage cheese

gouda cheese25,027,02,0356
parmesan cheese33,028,00,0392

Meat products

fat pork11,449,30,0489
fat2,489,00,0797
bacon23,045,00,0500

Sausages

smoked sausage9,963,20,3608

Bird

smoked chicken27,58,20,0184
duck16,561,20,0346
smoked duck19,028,40,0337
goose16,133,30,0364

Eggs

hard boiled chicken eggs12,911,60,8160

Fish and seafood

smoked fish26,89,90,0196
black caviar28,09,70,0203
granular salmon caviar32,015,00,0263
salmon19,86,30,0142
canned fish17,52,00,088
salmon21,66,0-140
trout19,22,1-97

Oils and Fats

cooking fat0,099,70,0897

Alcoholic beverages

dessert white wine 16%0,50,016,0153
dry red wine0,20,00,368
vodka0,00,00,1235
beer0,30,04,642

Soft Drinks

soda water0,00,00,0-
cola0,00,010,442
dry instant coffee15,03,50,094
sprite0,10,07,029
* data are per 100 g of product

Menu (Power Mode)

The nutrition menu for polyps in the gallbladder depends on the stage of the disease (preoperative period or after cholecystectomy). A set of permitted products and methods of cooking products allows you to cook many dishes, which makes the menu varied and relatively easy to carry over a long period of time.

Advantages and disadvantages

prosMinuses
  • The diet contains all the necessary nutritional macro / micronutrients, is easily tolerated and can be prescribed for a long period.
  • It improves the general condition and normalizes violations of the outflow of bile, helps prevent exacerbation of diseases.
  • Not financially expensive.
  • Long period of being on a diet.
  • It requires the availability of skills, knowledge and technology, time for preparing dietary dishes.

Feedback and Results

Reviews of the overwhelming number of patients with polyps in the gallbladder and undergoing surgery to remove them indicate the extreme importance and effectiveness of therapeutic nutrition. The diet is easily tolerated, however, the inconvenience can be considered the need for individual preparation, as well as skills and knowledge of cooking diet dishes and time costs.

  • "... When examined by ultrasound in the gall bladder, several polyps 6-9 mm in size were found. Recommended observation. It was observed for 2 years. At the last examination, the size increased to 1-1.2 cm and several new small polyps appeared. They offered to be operated on. After removing the gallbladder, he was on a diet for almost 5 months. Good thing I can cook myself. After six months, everything generally returned to normal, but I continue to follow the diet in a more expanded form anyway";
  • "... After cholecystectomy for 2 large polyps, I follow Diet No. 5 for almost 1.5 years. Already used to the limitations of fatty, fried, smoked and spicy. She feels well, and also lost weight. Sometimes on holidays I allow small errors in the diet, but then again I return to dietary nutrition. A disadvantage can be considered only cooking difficulties, since I often work until late and it is necessary to take prepared food with me. However, after I acquired a good professional double boiler, the cooking process accelerated and became easier".

Diet price

The diet for polyps in the gallbladder contains the usual easily accessible products and is not highly costly. The weekly cost of the diet varies between 1300-1500 rubles.

Watch the video: Gallbladder Problems - 9 Diet Tips (January 2020).

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