Diets

Diet for polycystic kidney and liver

General rules

Polycystic - A disease in which the formation of many cysts in the internal organs is noted. A cyst is a formation filled with watery contents. Cystic changes in various organs are caused by a genetic defect.

Polycystic liver disease is often combined with polycystic kidney disease, ovary, or pancreas. Polycystic liver disease is often asymptomatic and is detected by examination by chance. The course of the disease is favorable. Symptoms occur with the progression of the disease, usually after 45-50 years. With an increase in the volume of cysts, patients complain of discomfort in the right hypochondrium, belching and heartburn, which is associated with liver pressure on neighboring organs. Dysfunction of the liver appears in the late stages of the disease with the degeneration of the hepatic parenchyma. This happens with the massive spread of the process and the replacement of most of the parenchyma with the development of terminal liver failure.

Nutrition for liver pathology includes:

  • Liver sparing except fatty, spicy, fried foods and deep-fried foods.
  • The diet contains a reduced amount of refractory and poorly digested fats, margarine.
  • Dishes are prepared stewed, boiled or baked.
  • Fractional nutrition, which contributes to a good outflow of bile.
  • Decreased consumption of foods rich in cholesterol - fish caviar, offal, smoked sausages, fatty meat and fatty dairy products, egg yolks.
  • Limited salt intake.
  • An increase in the diet of lipotropic substances that protect this body from fatty degeneration. This is low-fat beef and fish, soybeans, buckwheat, cottage cheese, whey, buttermilk.
  • An increase in the diet of polyunsaturated fatty acids due to the use of vegetable oils (olive, linseed, sunflower, sesame).
  • Reducing simple carbohydrates (sugar, pastries, sweets, sweets, cakes and pastries with fat cream).
  • Enrichment of nutrition with vitamins (fruits and vegetables). The vegetable composition is diverse: you can use all the vegetables cream radish, radish, sorrel and spinach. Fruits and berries are allowed in any form.

In addition, diet is determined by the state of gallbladder function, symptoms of intestinal dyspepsia (constipation, diarrhea, bloating), intrahepatic cholestasis syndrome and is accordingly adjusted.

At hyperkinetic dyskinesia the bladder is limited or excluded stimulating bile formation products: animal fats, fatty dairy products, soda, raw vegetables and broths.

At hypokinetic dyskinesia the number of products stimulating the motility of the bubble increases: vegetable oil, sour cream, vegetables, fruits, bran, eggs, brown bread, cream.

For constipation:

  • It is important to adjust the diet - eating at the same time, avoiding long breaks.
  • Include more vegetables, fruits, as fiber is the best stimulant for bowel function. You can introduce additional bran (1 tbsp. Before meals, with a glass of water). Many dietary fiber contains prunes, figs, pears, beets, sea kale, nuts.
  • Drink on an empty stomach 1 tbsp. l vegetable oil (in the absence of gallstones). This has a choleretic effect and activates the intestines.
  • Replace sugar with xylitol, which has a laxative effect. It can be added to 1 tsp. in drinks (tea or compote).

An effective measure to combat constipation is physical activity and the use of a large amount of fluid (1.5-2 l).

At cholestasis the amount of bile entering the intestines decreases, and an excessive amount is found in the blood bilirubin. Along with the physiological intake of protein, it is necessary to drastically limit the amount of fat (40 g per day).

  • Eat fractionally and frequently.
  • Exclude fried, greasy and smoked foods. Oxidized fats are very harmful (they are formed during frying - french fries, fried pies, donuts, any deep-fried dishes). In creams, crackers, mayonnaise, biscuits may contain trans fats, which are not allowed in the diet of patients.
  • Drink plenty of water (purified water, herbal teas, juices and fruit drinks).

To eliminate other symptoms of intestinal dyspepsia, you need to take probioticsas well as the inclusion of food probiotics (kefir and sourdough yoghurts, pickled vegetables, fermented soy products).

A high risk for patients with polycystic kidney disease is an increase in blood pressure and related complications (stroke, heart attack) In addition, this disease is often accompanied by an infection of the urinary system and the formation of kidney stones. In this regard, the diet for polycystic kidney disease provides:

  • Limitation or exclusion in the diet of salt and products that cause fluid retention in the body (pickles, marinades, salted and smoked fish and meat products). Food for the patient is prepared without salt, and then added to the dish, a strictly defined amount of salt allowed by the doctor. 2-3 g or less.
  • Decreased fluid intake for impaired renal function. Its amount is calculated based on diuresis for the previous day.
  • Reducing animal fat.
  • Consumption of 80 g of protein due to milk and protein of eggs. Meat or fish is allowed in an amount of 150 g per day.
  • The inclusion in the diet of products with a diuretic effect: beets, green salads, apricots, cucumbers, pumpkin, zucchini, raisins, melon, dried apricots, apricot prunes, watermelon.
  • A sufficient amount of fiber - vegetables, fruits, nuts, bran.
  • The inclusion of vitamins in the form of drugs (BUT, FROM, B1, B12, K).
  • Essential oils and oxalic acid are excluded.
  • Strong tea and coffee, alcohol, cocoa, and chocolate are excluded.

With extensive damage and growth of cysts, the renal parenchyma is replaced by fibrous tissue, in which case polycystic kidney disease inevitably leads to renal failure. During this period, a low-protein diet is recommended for patients, since at the physiological norm of its consumption (1 g / kg weight) urea begins to rise rapidly.

  • Protein up to 40 g per day. Meat and fish are allowed in the amount of 55-60 g per day in boiled form.
  • Protein omelet from one egg.
  • Protein-free products (buckwheat, protein-free bread, sago).
  • Dishes without salt (0.5 g in the finished product can be).
  • Cereals restrict, replacing sago dishes.
  • Kefir, yogurt up to 200 g per day.
  • Boiled side dishes of vegetables (beets, cauliflower, cucumbers salad, parsley, tomatoes, green onions).
  • Fruits and berries of any kind, sugar, honey, preserves, (dried apricots and apricots with renal failure are not allowed).
  • The fluid is limited to 0.6 liters per day.

With progression renal failure the amount of protein is reduced to 20 g. The patient consumes mainly milk protein and special low-protein foods. Meat and fish, broths, and legumes are excluded. You can use salt substitutes, spicy dried herbs, seasonings, lemon juice.

Low-protein diet (with an additional intake keto analogs), reduces uremic production toxins with chronic renal failure and there is some slowdown in the progression of chronic renal failure. In older people with terminal uremia, this diet is an alternative to chronic dialysis. Secondary manifestations are reduced hyperparathyroidism and anemia. Patients with kidney pathology need to monitor the work of the intestines and prevent constipation, since normal stool helps to remove metabolic products.

There is no consensus among surgeons about surgical treatment. The most radical method for polycystic is liver or kidney resection. But to perform such interventions, a comprehensive and comprehensive study and weighing of all indications and contraindications is necessary. Therapeutic fasting in this disease is contraindicated.

Allowed Products

Diet for polycystic has many common points, with the exception of specific ones, which are mentioned above. The diet can include:

  • Soups on vegetable broth (vegetable, cereals, pasta). You can season soups with sour cream and butter in limited quantities, dill, parsley, caraway seeds. Onions can be introduced into soups after boiling.
  • Salt-free bread for kidney pathology and dried wheat for liver diseases.
  • All cereals and pasta. From them you can make puddings, groats with dried fruits, meatballs, casseroles with cottage cheese and pasta, fruit pilaf. The number of cereals is reduced only with functional renal failure.
  • Low-fat meat and fish, which are first boiled to reduce the content of protein and extractives, and then baked. Protein dishes can be made in minced form (cutlets, cabbage rolls, meat pancakes). You can use neutral sauces - sour cream, milk, vegetable.
  • Kefir, yogurt, acidophilus, yogurt, low-fat cottage cheese (you can add apples, carrots or dried fruits, if the doctor allows for kidney pathology). Sour cream is allowed limited. Butter is best consumed unsalted. Allowed 1-2 eggs per day, they are cooked soft-boiled or scrambled eggs. With renal pathology, the day of eating eggs reduces the amount of other proteins.
  • All vegetables (except fresh onions and garlic, radishes, turnips, celery, radishes). Steamed vegetables, boiled or stewed. They are also consumed in the form of fresh salads.
  • Vegetable oils - for tolerance.
  • Ripe fruits and berries: fresh, jelly, jelly, stewed fruit, jam, mashed potatoes. Cinnamon is allowed in desserts.
  • Honey, natural candy, any juices, rosehip infusion, green tea.

Approved Product Table

Proteins, gFats, gCarbohydrates, gCalories, kcal

Vegetables and greens

zucchini0,60,34,624
cauliflower2,50,35,430
potatoes2,00,418,180
carrot1,30,16,932
beet1,50,18,840
tomatoes0,60,24,220
pumpkin1,30,37,728

Fruits

apricots0,90,110,841
watermelon0,60,15,825
bananas1,50,221,895
melon0,60,37,433
figs0,70,213,749
nectarine0,90,211,848
peaches0,90,111,346
apples0,40,49,847

Berries

Strawberry0,80,47,541

Nuts and dried fruits

raisins2,90,666,0264
dried apricots5,20,351,0215
dried apricots5,00,450,6213
dates2,50,569,2274

Cereals and cereals

buckwheat groats (kernel)12,63,362,1313
semolina10,31,073,3328
cereals11,97,269,3366
corn grits8,31,275,0337
pearl barley9,31,173,7320
millet groats11,53,369,3348
white rice6,70,778,9344

Confectionery

jam0,30,263,0263
jelly2,70,017,979
milk sweets2,74,382,3364
candy fondant2,24,683,6369
paste0,50,080,8310

Raw materials and seasonings

cinnamon3,93,279,8261
honey0,80,081,5329
dried parsley22,44,421,2276
sugar0,00,099,7398
milk sauce2,07,15,284
sour cream sauce1,95,75,278
tomato sauce1,77,84,580
caraway19,814,611,9333
dried dill2,50,56,340

Milk products

milk3,23,64,864
kefir3,42,04,751
cream2,820,03,7205
sour cream2,820,03,2206
yogurt2,92,54,153
acidophilus2,83,23,857
yogurt4,32,06,260

Cheeses and cottage cheese

cottage cheese17,25,01,8121

Meat products

cooked beef25,816,80,0254
boiled beef tongue23,915,00,0231
boiled veal30,70,90,0131
rabbit21,08,00,0156

Bird

boiled chicken25,27,40,0170
turkey19,20,70,084

Eggs

chicken eggs12,710,90,7157

Oils and Fats

peasant butter unsalted1,072,51,4662
corn oil0,099,90,0899
olive oil0,099,80,0898
sunflower oil0,099,90,0899
ghee0,299,00,0892

Soft Drinks

mineral water0,00,00,0-
coffee with milk and sugar0,71,011,258
black tea with milk and sugar0,70,88,243

Juices and compotes

apricot juice0,90,19,038
carrot juice1,10,16,428
pumpkin juice0,00,09,038
* data are per 100 g of product

Fully or partially restricted products

  • Limit or exclude salt (with kidney pathology). In this case, use salt-free bread and other pastries.
  • Salty and smoked products, fish caviar, canned fish and meat, canned vegetables, chips, cheese, soups concentrates are excluded.
  • Fried foods, animal fats and meat without prior boiling.
  • Fatty fish and meat, any broths, decoctions of legumes.
  • Onions, legumes, spinach, sorrel, radishes, garlic, radish, mushrooms, peppers, mustard, horseradish, ketchup.
  • Strong coffee, any alcoholic drinks.

Prohibited Products Table

Proteins, gFats, gCarbohydrates, gCalories, kcal

Vegetables and greens

legumes vegetables9,11,627,0168
sauerkraut1,80,14,419
green onion1,30,04,619
onion1,40,010,441
canned cucumbers2,80,01,316
pickles0,80,11,711
radish1,20,13,419
white radish1,40,04,121
turnip1,50,16,230
celery0,90,12,112
canned tomatoes1,10,13,520
horseradish3,20,410,556
garlic6,50,529,9143
spinach2,90,32,022
sorrel1,50,32,919

Mushrooms

mushrooms3,52,02,530
marinated mushrooms2,20,40,020

Chocolate

chocolate5,435,356,5544

Raw materials and seasonings

mustard5,76,422,0162
ginger1,80,815,880
ketchup1,81,022,293
mayonnaise2,467,03,9627
ground black pepper10,43,338,7251

Meat products

pork16,021,60,0259
fat2,489,00,0797

Bird

smoked chicken27,58,20,0184
duck16,561,20,0346
smoked duck19,028,40,0337
goose16,133,30,0364

Fish and seafood

stockfish17,54,60,0139
smoked fish26,89,90,0196
black caviar28,09,70,0203
granular salmon caviar32,015,00,0263
canned fish17,52,00,088

Oils and Fats

animal fat0,099,70,0897
cooking fat0,099,70,0897
* data are per 100 g of product

Menu (Power Mode)

The menu for these diseases can be varied, since there are not so many restrictions, apart from severe cases of terminal conditions. Of course, due to salt restrictions, all dishes are tasteless and this can be somewhat corrected using dried herbs. Predominantly in the diet should be present vegetable dishes and fruits, which should be consumed in between meals.

Breakfast may contain cereals and eggs, for lunch - vegetarian soups and boiled meat. Dinner - cottage cheese, fish, cottage cheese casseroles, vegetable cutlets.

Advantages and disadvantages

prosMinuses
  • Spares the liver and kidneys, helps to improve their function.
  • Reduces edema and blood pressure.
  • Reduces discomfort in the liver, bloating and eliminates constipation.
  • Tasteless dishes without salt quickly annoy the sick.

Feedback and Results

On the one hand, the diet is not uniform, but with the arc, it is difficult for patients to get used to a low-salt diet. And if this restriction is not so important with liver pathology, then with renal pathology, especially in the presence of edema and high blood pressure, it is simply necessary. Patients consider the restriction of salt in the diet to be the only negative. Everyone understands the need for proper nutrition and indicate its effectiveness.

  • "... I always follow a diet. I have two reasons for this. In childhood, she suffered Botkin's disease with an outcome in hepatitis, and somewhat later, when an ultrasound scan appeared, polycystic liver disease was also discovered. The doctor said that eating right for me is a way out plus Essential. I start injecting into a vein, and then I continue to take in capsules. Indeed, it takes about two weeks to move away from the diet, I begin to "feel" the liver (heaviness on the right under the rib). But nothing prevents you from sticking to it constantly, especially since the family does not refuse dishes cooked in a double boiler";
  • "... Polycystic kidney disease has recently begun to manifest itself with increased pressure and periodic swelling of the face. The tests are still normal, but the doctor is scared that in case of deterioration or inflammation it will be necessary to remove the kidney. Therefore, this food has become an outlet for me and an opportunity to maintain my condition. It is difficult to carry it out, because you can’t eat sausages, cheeses, ham, canned food, pickles, salted fish. Salt-free nutrition immediately gives a good diuretic effect and blood pressure decreases - I can even do without pills. I thought that after the operation I still need to eat like this".

Diet price

The availability of the diet is explained by its not very high cost, since vegetables and cereals predominate. The cost can be 1300-1400 rubles. in Week.

Watch the video: Polycystic kidney disease: Mayo Clinic Radio (January 2020).

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