Eczema - non-contagious disease of the skin, which is chronic. For its course, a manifestation of rashes, itching is characteristic. In this case, the disease proceeds with periodic remissions and exacerbations.
Types of Eczema
Manifestations true eczema always acute: it can begin in a person of any age, and the course of the disease will be jerky: frequent relapses, after which the disease becomes chronic, in which exacerbations periodically occur. For the acute stage, the formation of multiple vesicles is characteristic, and after their dissection occurs, weeping appear on the affected areas erosion. In the acute stage of the disease, a person suffers from severe burning and itching. When the inflammation subsides, the total number of bubbles decreases, the skin becomes dry and begins to peel off. The size of the foci of true eczema can be different, the contours are often blurred, and the affected areas alternate with healthy areas of the skin. Such lesions occur, as a rule, symmetrically on the feet, forearms, hands. Disease in children often affects the face, buttocks, limbs, and chest.
One of the subspecies of true eczema is considered dyshidrotic eczema, which, as a rule, develops on the soles, on the sides of the fingers, on the skin of the hands and palms. Symptoms of this form of the disease is the occurrence of a large number of small vesicles that have dense tires. The size of such bubbles is small - from 1 to 3 mm in diameter. The foci of the disease are easily distinguished, since they are surrounded by the rim of the stratum corneum, exfoliating in the process. At the center of the formation, scales, crusts, and small erosions are noticeable. Treatment of dyshidrotic eczema should take place only under the supervision of a doctor, and even any folk remedies can be practiced only after its permission.
At microbial eczema lesions are located asymmetrically, as a rule, they arise on the human limbs and have rounded outlines. There are also abscesses and clearly defined boundaries of the stratum corneum. Often with the development of this form of the disease, the patient eventually develops fistulas, trophic ulcers, wounds that do not heal for a long time. Near the main focus of the disease are noticeable microvesicles. At the same time, far from the focus of the disease, allergic rashes sometimes occur. As a variety of this form of the disease stands out nummular eczemain which the patient forms rounded lesions with clear boundaries. They have a diameter of not more than 3 cm, a blue-red tint, and flakes are noticeable on the surface. Most often, such lesions are localized on the back of the hand, as well as on the extensor surface.
On the scalp develops seborrheic eczema. Such a lesion can also capture the behind the ears, scapula and sternum. In this case, it has a yellowish tint, oily scales are layered, and weeping is absent. Such foci are characterized by a gradual regression in the central part with their parallel growth on the periphery.
Occupational eczema is an ailment of an allergic nature, which manifests itself as a consequence of a person’s contact with certain substances that irritate the skin. In this case, damage to exposed areas of the skin occurs most often: eczema can occur on the face, hands, neck, and forearm. In more rare cases, the feet and lower legs are affected. At the site of the outbreak, the presence of edema, vesicles, periodic itching and weeping are noted. After some time, signs that are characteristic of true eczema begin to be noted. The disease proceeds for a long time, however, if the patient no longer comes into contact with the allergen, which became the cause of the development of the disease, then regression quickly sets in. The patient should be aware that with each new exacerbation, the disease will already be more severe. To determine the presence of high sensitivity to allergens, skin tests are used.
Mycotic form the disease manifests itself in the patient in case of joining fungal infection. In this case, eczema on the legs often develops. This form of lesions is characterized by significantly peeling, round foci. Treatment of eczema on the legs is carried out comprehensively: it is mandatory to use antimycotic drugs.
With the paratraumatic form of the disease, rashes occur where there was an injury before.
The development of varicose eczema contributes to the presence of varicose symptoms of the legs. In this case, drugs that are used to treat can also negatively affect varicose veins.
Causes of Eczema
This ailment is also called weeping. Eczema has a neuro-allergic nature. As a rule, during the development of the disease, redness and swelling of the skin appears, after which cracks and very small vesicles gradually form, which are difficult to distinguish with the naked eye or in the photo. At first, the skin in the affected area is dry, but later in the place of the vesicles appear ulcers either wet skin. Most often, this disease develops in children, and if its proper treatment is not provided, then the disease gradually turns into a chronic form.
As the causes of the disease, a number of factors, both internal and external, are determined. This is a predisposition of a genetic nature, impaired functioning of the endocrine and nervous system, secondary immunodeficiency, infections, allergic reactions. Sometimes the occurrence of eczema is associated with dysfunction of the central nervous system, as well as with damage to the peripheral nerves.
Symptoms of Eczema
A characteristic feature of the disease is the symmetry of the manifesting processes. In children, eczema often develops on the face, chin, less often - on the head, back, chest, knees and elbows. In adult patients, eczema is often diagnosed on the hands, neck, ankles, and also in places of bends - on the inside of the elbow or on the outside of the knee. To determine how to treat the disease, it is important to initially attribute the manifested ailment to a certain type.
However, a number of symptoms are characteristic of all varieties of the disease: redness of the skin, the appearance of vesicles, crusts, cracks, the presence of peeling and scratching. Also, spots appear on the affected areas, the color of which can vary from pink to cyanotic. It is important to treat eczema on the hands and also on other parts of the body in such a way as to reduce the manifestation of another symptom - bouts of severe itching, which most often occur in the evenings, as well as immediately after contact of the affected part of the body with water.
Diagnosis of eczema
To diagnose weeping lichen in adults and children, the doctor initially performs a thorough examination, studying the clinical picture. Also, the specialist is guided by an anamnesis, and if necessary appoints additional examinations.
To make eczema treatment the most effective, an integrated approach to both therapeutic and preventive measures is practiced. Initially, therapy should be aimed at eliminating the initial factor that caused the disease. it neurotic disorders, neuroendocrine disorders, chronic diseases.
Treatment of microbial eczema, as well as other types of disease, requires the observance of hygiene rules, as well as the right approach to nutrition. You can improve the condition of the patient, using some folk remedies. So, patients are prescribed baths with decoctions of medicinal plants - chamomile, string, oak bark. These plants have astringent properties. However, it is impossible to overheat the body and prevent strong sweating. To achieve the desired results of treatment, you should adhere to a special milk-vegetable diet, in which the amount of consumed spicy and spicy foods, as well as liquid, will be reduced. Alcohol should not be used in patients with eczema symptoms. Diet for eczema should be light and contain a small amount of carbohydrates.
As methods of systemic treatment of the disease, an eczema ointment based on active ingredients is used. It, like other drugs, should be prescribed by a doctor, since when determining how to treat this ailment, it takes into account the general condition of the body. Antihistamines are used depending on the form of the disease, immunomodulatorsvitamins. In addition, dehydration and detoxification therapy is important. Depending on which particular form of the disease (seborrheic, microbial, true) is diagnosed in a patient, local drugs are recommended. If eczema on the face or other parts of the body has all the signs of an acute form of the disease, aerosols with corticosteroids are prescribed, for example, prednisone. Lotions are also made in which antibacterial and anti-inflammatory drugs are used. Weeping eczema requires therapy with these agents until the weeping disappears. Other drugs are used only when acute inflammation is removed.
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Treatment with folk remedies
You can also learn how to cure eczema from the recipes of traditional medicine that have been preserved to this day. An effective ointment, which includes 20 grams of burdock leaves, chamomile flowers, ungulate root, willow tea herb. All these components are used in dried form. Water is added to this mixture and the herbs are simmered. Later, you need to add a tablespoon of oil to them. After the mixture has sufficiently thickened, it is filtered and mixed with glycerin halfway.
You can prepare for external use and an ordinary decoction of burdock root, for the preparation of which you need to pour 15 grams of crushed dry burdock root with one glass of water and boil for ten minutes. Compresses on the affected areas are also made from fresh strawberries, previously well crushed.
Traditional medicine also recommends decoctions and infusions for internal use. In this case, you can undergo a course of treatment with a decoction of deaf nettle flowers, which is consumed several times a day for half an hour before eating. Similarly, you can take a decoction of wheatgrass root, verbena tea. It is also recommended to drink tea from dried fruits of viburnum, as well as take a few days for 2 ml of sea buckthorn oil.
Recommendations for eczema
On days when the disease worsens, you should definitely follow a diet, excluding all allergens from the diet. It is not necessary to allow contact of the affected areas of the body with water, as well as household chemicals. It should also limit contact with allergens, which at one time already became the cause of the development of the disease. It is important to prevent infections, in particular, the simple virus, from entering the body. herpes.
Surely foci of infection foci, which are biliary tract giardiasis, acute pyoderma, varicose veins, intestinal dysbiosis.
Treatment of eczema in children requires deworming. During treatment, the child should receive a large amount of natural vitamins from vegetables and fruits.
Eczema in children
Soaking lichen in children manifests itself with signs seborrheic, true and microbial eczema Symptoms of these forms of the disease are combined in different ways and can be combined on different parts of the body. The first symptoms of the disease can appear in children who are three months old. Basically, the disease is characteristic of babies who are fed artificially. Initially, the child's forehead can be affected, then the cheeks. After this, the lesion gradually affects the scalp, neck, auricles, limbs, trunk, buttocks. The child is disturbed by insomnia, as he experiences severe itching. Seborrheic eczema can occur as early as the second week of a child's life. In this case, a rash appears in the hair, on the cheeks and forehead, on the auricles and on the neck folds. Sometimes in children there are also signs of microbial eczema.
Eczema can sometimes be accompanied asthma and arise on the background exudative diathesis. Often a tendency to eczema is observed throughout life. Children suffering from this ailment are often allergic to certain foods, smells, dust, medications. Any allergic reaction can be a kind of impetus to the development of eczema.
It is important to carefully consider this problem in infants. It is imperative to consult a doctor regarding the feeding of such children. Kids with eczema cannot be swaddled tightly, and clothes made from non-natural fabrics should also be used for them. When bathing the baby, you can add a string, chamomile, oak bark to the water.
Diet, nutrition for eczema
Diet for eczema
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List of sources
- Fitzpatrick T., Johnson P., Wolf K. et al. Dermatology. Atlas-directory. - M .: Practice, 1999;
- Adaskevich V.P. Diagnostic indices in dermatology. - M.: Medicine. 2004;
- Skripkin Yu.K., Mashkillayson A.A., Sharapova GL. Skin and sexually transmitted diseases // M., Medicine, 1997;
- Pavlova O.V. Eczema: Etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment. - M.: Book House "Librocom", 2010.