Any doctor will tell you that prevention is the most effective way to treat the disease. And this statement is one hundred percent true. Since it is much easier to prevent the development of the disease than to spend time, effort and money on its treatment later. In addition, many diseases are so aggressive that a person learns about them too late.
Therefore, doctors do not get tired of repeating that, firstly, you should definitely monitor your health and regularly undergo examinations. And, secondly, do not ignore preventive measures aimed at maintaining good health.
About what great importance is prevention, said ancient doctors. The fathers of medicine suggested that their patients observe the rules of personal hygiene, as well as adhere to the rules of a healthy diet. With the development of mankind and medical science, preventive methods of combating diseases have also improved.
Nowadays, in any developed state, considerable funds are allocated for sanitary-hygienic, anti-epidemic and educational measures that help to avoid major pandemics and ensure a stable increase in a healthy population. Vaccination can be considered one of the main ways to prevent a fairly wide range of diseases that hundreds of thousands of people were exterminated a hundred years ago.
Types of vaccinations
Before we talk about what vaccinations are and why they are needed at all, it is worth paying attention to some general questions on the topic and taking a short excursion into history. Did you know that up to the 19th century, European doctors were helpless in the face of the often recurring large-scale epidemics (pandemics) of infectious diseases.
For instance, smallpox (a deadly virus that appeared in Asia around the 5th century AD), millions of people were annually infected, of whom 30% died, and survivors remained crippled for life. Ancient doctors looked for all sorts of ways to protect against this deadly disease.
Thanks to what, such a method as inoculation or vaccination was invented, i.e. the process of introducing foreign or infected material (for example, liquid from a bubble rash with smallpox) to a healthy person in order to develop immunity. In India, this procedure was called variation.
According to another version, China is considered to be the birthplace of inoculation, where they used such a method of combating smallpox as nasal insufflation, i.e. inhalation of powder containing smallpox virus. European doctors received information about vaccination thanks to the East India Company.
The first vaccinations began to be practiced by the Greek doctors E. Thionis and Jacob and Chios Pilarinos. This method of combating smallpox in the United States and England was used half a century before the Edward Jenner vaccine officially recognized by the scientific and medical community was invented in 1876.
However, it was not widespread due to the high mortality rate and was used exclusively during periods of a surge in the disease. It is interesting that simple farmer Benjamin Jesti was the first to fight back the deadly disease, who noticed that people who had a lightened version of the disease (smallpox) are not infected with smallpox. He infected himself and his family, thus conducting a scientific experiment.
In the end, everything ended well, no one was sick and did not die. Subsequently, the already famous English doctor E. Jenner was able to get the vaccine against smallpox by vaccinating cowpox with the son of his gardener. The boy, who had a lightened version of the disease, not only survived, but was further immune to smallpox. From this very moment, the revolution in medicine began.
A real breakthrough in vaccination was made by the French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur, who, using his innovative pasteurization method, was able to develop vaccinations against rabies and anthrax. Last case of infection smallpox was recorded in Somalia in 1977. Through mass vaccination, humanity has been able to eradicate a disease that has claimed millions of lives for hundreds of years.
Types of vaccines by composition:
- live vaccines i.e. containing weakened living strains viruses or harmful microbes (antigen);
- inactivated vaccines, i.e. containing inactivated, i.e. dead strains;
- biosynthetic vaccines, i.e. containing material (for example, proteins) obtained by genetic engineering methods;
- containing toxoids, i.e. inactivated toxinsproduced by the causative agent of the disease.
In addition to antigen, vaccines may contain:
- preservatives provide sterility of the solution;
- other non-specific impurities (e.g., substrate proteins, animal serum, or antibiotics).
Distinguish active and passive vaccination. In the first case, a person is injected with the vital products of a pathogenic microorganism (diphtheria, tetanus), and in the second - antibodies (Hepatitis B) It is important to note that with active vaccination only inactivated, i.e. dead or severely weakened microorganisms to eliminate the slightest possibility of infection.
Methods of administering vaccines:
- The intramuscular route of administration of vaccinations is considered the most popular. Good blood flow in the muscles helps the immune cells to reach the pathogen site as soon as possible. This is what ensures fast production. immunity. In addition, the remoteness of the muscles from the skin reduces the likelihood of side effects on the skin. Children under three years of age are vaccinated in the thigh (front side). After three years, the vaccine is placed on the shoulder (deltoid muscle). Inoculation into the gluteus muscle is not recommended, since there is a risk of getting into the sciatic nerve, which is fraught with complications. In addition, the vaccination needle is too short to pierce a layer of subcutaneous fat on the buttocks. As a result, it turns out subcutaneous, rather than intramuscular injection of drugs.
- The cutaneous or intradermal method of introducing vaccinations into the flexion surface of the forearm or shoulder is used for vaccination against tularemia, as well as tuberculosis. As a result, at the injection site, a lemon peel forms (whitish spot with indentations).
- The subcutaneous method is used to administer live vaccines, as well as streptococcal and gangrenous toxoids. This method is preferable for use in patients with blood clotting disorders, since this administration of the vaccine reduces the risk of severe bleeding.
- Aerosol method (intranasal) involves the introduction of a vaccine through the nose. This method is used for vaccination against fluto provide local immunity in the so-called "entrance gate" of the infection.
- The oral method of vaccination is used to vaccinate children from one year old polio or typhoid fever.
- Complex vaccination is a method that is distinguished by the simultaneous introduction of several vaccinations.
Ideally, after vaccination, the immune system should respond (i.e. fight back) with a harmful antigen. The process of producing bone marrow “defenders” starts white blood cellswhich in turn produce antibodies. They kill the introduced antigen, and if everything went as planned, then the body develops immunity to this type of disease.
Moreover, such immunity can persist for a long period of time or for life. Therefore, it is necessary to repeat certain vaccinations over time in order to maintain the ability of antibodies to destroy pathogenic microorganisms. Having vaccinated, a person does not get sick, because the antigens contained in the vaccine are weakened or killed.
They play the role of "provocateurs" of the immune system, which begins to protect the body as soon as it detects harmful microorganisms. If in the future a person encounters a disease from which he has been vaccinated before, then he will either not get sick at all, because previously developed antibodies will destroy pathogenic microorganisms, or will transfer the disease in a lighter form.
The immune system responds to vaccination immediately, this is how our body works. However, how smoothly this process will proceed is not known in advance. Therefore, unwanted side effects from vaccination may occur. Unfortunately, we are all different, and what is good for one may be detrimental to the other.
Undesirable side effects are individual not only for a specific type of vaccination, but also for each individual human body. However, the most common common side effects are:
- edemaredness or hardening of the skin, as well as soreness at the injection site;
- insignificant fever;
- crying and loss of appetite in a child;
- rash (permissible for vaccination against mumps, rubella, or measles).
The adverse reactions listed above are considered normal, since the immune system reacts to exposure to harmful microorganisms after vaccination. Reactions from the skin are caused not only by the injected drug, but also by the trauma caused by the needle from the syringe.
In addition, many vaccines often contain special components that are designed to provide greater blood flow to the injection site. As a result, more immune cells will form in this place, and immunity will be stronger. Therefore, redness (hyperemia) on the skin after vaccination is a normal indicator of the body.
It is a completely different matter when, after vaccination, a person has pronounced complications, for example, a severe allergic reaction (anaphylactic shock, Quincke's edema) or a temperature above 40 C. In such cases, do not hesitate, you need to urgently call an ambulance, because the bill goes for minutes.
In addition, vaccinations have a number of contraindications, which also differ depending on the type of vaccine. The following types of contraindications are distinguished:
- True, i.e. those that are confirmed and proven by scientific methods, and are also listed in international recommendations, orders and annotations for vaccines.
- False - these are contraindications that were either previously considered dangerous conditions for vaccination, or were invented "among the people" (for example, Down disease, cerebral palsy, encephalopathy, anemia, dysbiosis, allergy, congenital malformations, as well as serious illnesses transferred at an early age).
- Relative contraindications are classified as true contraindications, but the final decision on vaccination of the patient is made by the doctor. For example, in the presence of an allergic reaction to protein, they are not vaccinated against influenza, however, during an epidemic, the doctor can give the patient permission to vaccinate if he considers that the risk of developing an allergic reaction is lower than the risk of contracting the virus.
- Absolute, i.e. contraindications, in the presence of which the child is strictly forbidden to be vaccinated even if the time has come according to the recommended vaccination calendar.
- Permanent contraindications are conditions in which vaccination will always be unacceptable, for example, if a child has primary immunodeficiency.
- Temporary contraindications (exacerbation of chronic diseases, ARI, ARVI).
- General and private contraindications. The first group includes conditions in which it is not recommended to take any type of vaccination (for example, elevated body temperature), and the second group includes conditions in which a specific type of vaccination is contraindicated, and all others are not prohibited.
Do children need vaccinations?
Should a child be vaccinated? Should children under one year old be vaccinated? Can they be done with allergies? And in general, knowing about the possible serious, and in some cases even deadly side effects, is it necessary to trust the life of your precious baby with vaccines? These questions concern the vast majority of parents.
We think that many of us have at least once come across the opinion of opponents of vaccination, who argue that vaccines are not just a waste of time and money, but also a dangerous occupation. There is a whole social movement that promotes anti-vaccination.
Adherents of the anti-vaccination movement sharply criticize mass vaccination, disputing both its safety and effectiveness. It is interesting that opponents of vaccination appeared immediately after the invention of the first smallpox vaccination by E. Jenner in the 19th century.
At that time, people refused to be vaccinated for religious reasons. Over time, several anti-vaccination organizations formed in the United States and Great Britain that fought vaccination on all fronts. It is important to note that the basis of such organizations was representatives of the so-called alternative medicine, i.e. homeopaths, chiropractors, as well as folk healers of all stripes.
All of them claimed that the “diabolical vaccines” not only infringe on the human right to freedom of choice, but also cause irreparable harm to health. Despite the fact that in the courtyard of the 21st century, science and medicine are developing rapidly, the anti-vaccination movement is still flourishing. Since there are still people who naively trust the arguments of the opponents of vaccines that have not passed scientific verification.
In addition, the Internet contributes to the development of modern anti-vaccination movement. After all, now anyone can get information that interests him, even if false and unverified. As a rule, opponents of vaccination give the following arguments why you can not do vaccinations:
- "Vaccination is nothing but a preplanned conspiracy of doctors and pharmaceutical giants to enrich." Anti-vaccinators are really convinced that all the evidence about the actual benefits of vaccines is fabricated by scientists and pharmacists. This statement is so meaningless that sometimes I don’t even want to comment on such wild statements. For centuries, many doctors have been trying to find a cure for deadly viral diseases that literally "mowed" entire generations of people. They conducted experiments on themselves or their loved ones. And when in the 19th century, doctors and scientists managed to achieve success and find a way to save people from mass death due to epidemics of serious illnesses, instead of gratitude for what they received - condemnation and mistrust. It’s good that there are still more thinking people, otherwise we would again live in fear of diseases such as smallpox, rabies, polio, measles or tetanus.
- "Vaccines are not effective" - this is another statement from which it is simply overwhelmed by ignorance. Unfortunately, the main audience of the anti-vaccination movement is poorly educated and overly impressionable people who are not able to think independently and take every word in horror stories. Statistics claim that it is thanks to vaccinations that people who encounter a serious infectious disease either don’t get sick or tolerate it in a lighter form. Things are completely different with an unvaccinated person who, firstly, cannot avoid the disease, and, secondly, it is not known how it will be transmitted.Back in the last century, hundreds of thousands of people died from smallpox or smallpox. Thanks to universal vaccination, cases of infection with this deadly disease have not been recorded over the past 30 years. Is this not the most important evidence that vaccines really work.
- "Vaccines are not needed, because the diseases they fight are so rare." One would like to say loudly: "Gentlemen, anti-vaccinators! Severe infectious diseases are really rare now. But only because people around the world have been vaccinated since birth for more than a hundred years." Indeed, modern medicine has reached unprecedented heights in the diagnosis and treatment of infections. However, vaccination is still considered the best way to prevent and treat it. Unfortunately, many parents still doubt whether to vaccinate their child or not. Everyone is afraid of possible complications, this is understandable. But it is worth thinking about the fact that, without vaccination, an entire layer of the population is formed, the immune system of which is not protected. These people will not only suffer themselves, but will also become potentially dangerous to those who transmit the infectious diseases.
- "Vaccines harm children's health and contribute to the development of severe deviations and diseases." Some people really believe that vaccines can cause children autism. This is an absolutely ridiculous statement, since it has long been proven that childhood autism is a congenital genetic malformation. Anti-vaccinators actively use rumors and speculation to influence people's opinions. This is precisely the saddest thing in all this movement, which is trying to fight with what it absolutely does not understand and does not even try to figure out.
- "The statistics on vaccine complications are specifically underestimated by medical professionals who cannot be trusted." And why mankind should trust anti-vaccinators, who often do not have any specialized (medical, biological, chemical) education at all.
- "Vaccinations harm the immune system." Earlier, we talked about the mechanism of the immune system response to vaccines. The vaccine cannot somehow harm the immune system, it forms it, forcing the body's defense system to be activated and at the same time develop antibodies that can destroy the infection. This ridiculous statement of anti-vaccinators speaks only about their complete ignorance and ignorance of the anatomy of the human body and the principles of operation of its main vital mechanisms.
- Religious motives and appeal to human rights. The core of the anti-vaccine movement in the 19th century was deeply religious people who believed that a person was not entitled to interfere with God's plan and providence. Like, to whom it is written on the family death from an illness, he will not be able to avoid this in any way. Nowadays, religious opponents of vaccines (official representatives of major religious denominations do not oppose vaccination) have also been joined by individual rights activists who claim that only a person can decide what to do with his body. But no one forces you to be vaccinated. This is a voluntary decision. Before vaccinating a child, the doctor must obtain not only the oral, but also written consent of the parents, so there are no violations of the rights of the individual.
- Various conspiracy theories according to which vaccination is a way of influencing human health, for example, in order to reduce the number of a particular nation.
If you still doubt whether children should be vaccinated and vaccinated themselves, then consider that:
- The popularity of the anti-vaccination movement in some regions over the past two decades has led to epidemics of precisely those diseases that people have refused to vaccinate on a massive scale.
- It is proved that the risk of complications when using even the most severe vaccine for the body (on average one case per thousand) is several times less than the risk of complications and death from an infectious disease.
- Refusal of vaccinations in childhood forms a whole layer of the population that will be vulnerable to infectious diseases in the future, and then a global pandemic will be inevitable.
If we discard all emotions and look sensibly at the movement of anti-vaccinators, we can see that it is these people who are correctly manipulated for the purpose of profit, and not doctors or pharmacists. Who are they anti-vaccinators paying for exposing media vaccinations? As a rule, ardent opponents of the position of official doctors are representatives of non-traditional or unrecognized methods of healing.
In fairness, it is worth noting that among representatives of conservative medicine there are many critics vaccination. But this does not mean that they deny its benefits, they just want to improve the process, both of production and of the use of vaccines. First of all, everyone is concerned about the safety of both the vaccines themselves and the vaccination process.
After all, vaccines, unlike other methods of healing, are done initially by healthy people. The vaccine should not worsen the condition of the patient and harm. Its main goal is to harden the immune system and build protection against infection. Therefore, everyone who deals with vaccines should be extremely sensitive to safety issues.
For this reason, all public vaccination issues should be dealt with exclusively by state bodies. Indeed, when the epidemic subsides and for a long period of time the infection does not make itself felt, the population switches from the danger of disease to the possible danger of vaccination. Obligatory control by the state will help to improve the quality of vaccinations, as well as reassure people who are worried about possible negative consequences.
Of course, only the parents themselves can decide whether their vaccinations are required for their children up to a year and older, but the doctors' opinion on this matter is unambiguous. Even taking into account possible complications and side effects that are really rare, especially with modern vaccines, vaccinations protect the child from a more terrible and sometimes fatal outcome of a serious infectious disease.
The results of the mass rejection of vaccination led to epidemics:
- Smallpox in Stockholm in the years 1873-1874, when the number of vaccinated people fell sharply from 90% to 40%.
- Whooping cough in the UK in the 70-80 years of the last century, when after another debate about the benefits and dangers of vaccination, the number of vaccinated people decreased from 81% to 31%.
- Whooping cough in Sweden from 1976 to 1996, due to the moratorium on vaccinations for children introduced by the authorities, a high mortality rate was avoided due to the lifting of vaccination restrictions.
- Diphtheriain the CIS countries from 1990 to 1999, when, along with the general decline in healthcare, there was a massive rejection of vaccination. As a result, about 5 thousand of 150 thousand infected were killed by diphtheria.
- Corey in the Netherlands in 1999-2000, when an outbreak occurred in religious communities where vaccination was denied.
- Corey in Dublin (Ireland) in 2000 and again because of the mass rejection of vaccinations.
- Diphtheria, polio and measles in Nigeria from 2001 to the present. The terrifying situation was provoked by the leadership of the northern part of the country. The governor of Kano, a religious conservative and anti-vaccination advocate, recommended that his citizens refuse vaccinations. As a result, these territories have become "suppliers" of infection to all their neighbors. Unfortunately, to this day in Nigeria, the so-called Western medicine and vaccination are wary. People continue to die, and the worst part is that the largest percentage of deaths occur in young children.
- Corey in 2005, a generation vulnerable to the disease has grown in India due to refusal to vaccinate children.
- Polioin the territories of Pakistan and Afghanistan controlled by the Islamic Taliban movement. The disease is rampant there until now due to the ban on vaccination, financed from the budget of Western states, with which the authorities in this region are in a state of armed conflict.
Vaccination schedule for children
According to the rules, doctors use to vaccinationchildren vaccination calendar. This means that at different ages the child is supposed to have a certain type of vaccination. This kind of plan or schedule was not provided for by chance. The childhood vaccination calendar is a well-calibrated vaccination system that will help the child’s immune system develop protection against major infectious diseases.
It is important to note that such a list of vaccinations from birth is advisory in nature, i.e. it is preferable to adhere to it, but there is nothing to worry if, for some objective reason (illness, departure, etc.) you missed the vaccination. The main thing is still to be vaccinated even with a delay.
Pediatricians recommend paying special attention to vaccinations that children under one year old do. It is better not to miss the vaccination schedule at this age, as newborns and one-year-old babies are most often at risk for the disease.
In order for the vaccination process to be successful and not cause inconvenience to both parents and children, it is worth adhering to the following recommendations:
- Vaccination can only be carried out in medical institutions and can only be used for this. immunobiological preparationsverified, approved and registered in accordance with national law.
- TO vaccinationsneed to prepare in advance. This means that before vaccination, you should visit a doctor who must examine the child and give his permission for vaccination. In addition, the pediatrician should be provided with fresh blood and urine tests for examination. These are extremely important preparatory measures that will help to eliminate the danger of developing side effects from a vaccination given against a background of an ongoing illness. Parents and the doctor must be sure that the child is healthy and feeling good. Otherwise, it is better to postpone the vaccination.
- If the child is allergic, then about a week before vaccination, it is not necessary to introduce new products into his diet. In addition, it will be useful to clarify with the pediatrician how to eliminate or mitigate a possible allergic reaction. For example, often a doctor prescribes in advance antihistamines to prepare the baby’s body.
- Before vaccination with live vaccines, you should avoid taking medications containing sulfanilamide and antibiotics.
- The first half hour after vaccination is best spent in the clinic. This will allow you to quickly get qualified medical help in case of side effects or complications.
- It is strictly forbidden to apply any compresses or dressings to the injection site.
- On the day of vaccination, as well as tomorrow, you should refrain from walking, because congestion or hypothermia increases the risk of developing ARVI or ARI against the background of vaccination, after which the immune system is "busy" with the fight against infection.
- If after vaccination the child has a fever (up to 38.5 C), then you can give an antipyretic, after consulting with your doctor. If the temperature is above 38.5 C, then you should immediately call an ambulance.
What vaccinations do children under one year old
So, what vaccinations and how many do they take up to a year? The national vaccination schedule for children in Russia, presented in the table below, will help us answer this question.
|Age||Vaccination name||Procedure and recommendations|
|Newborn babies||Viral hepatitis b||In the first day after birth, the child is vaccinated against viral hepatitis B. Vaccinations are also given to newborns at risk:|
|Newborns at 3-7 days of life||Tuberculosis||Vaccination is carried out in order to prevent the development of the tuberculosis epidemic in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, the incidence rates of which exceed 80 cases per 100 thousand people. Be sure to vaccinate those children who are surrounded by people with tuberculosis.|
|1 month old babies||Second hepatitis B vaccine||Vaccination is carried out in accordance with the rules established by the legislation of the Russian Federation and instructions for the use of drugs. Vaccinations are repeated for children at risk.|
|2 months old newborn babies||Vaccination is carried out in accordance with the rules established by the legislation of the Russian Federation and instructions for the use of drugs. Vaccinations are repeated for children at risk.|
|3 months old newborn babies||Diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, polio.||Vaccination is carried out in accordance with the rules established by the legislation of the Russian Federation and instructions for the use of drugs.|
|Children 3-6 months of age||Haemophilus influenzae infection.|
Vaccination is carried out in accordance with the rules established by the legislation of the Russian Federation and instructions for the use of drugs. The vaccination course consists of three stages. Vaccinations are done at intervals of 1-1.5 months.
Risk group for vaccination against hemophilic infection:
|Children aged 4-5 months||Second vaccination from diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, polio, pneumococcal and hemophilic infection.||Vaccination is carried out in accordance with the rules established by the legislation of the Russian Federation and instructions for the use of drugs for children who were vaccinated for the first time in 3 months.|
|Children age 6 months||Third vaccination from tetanus, diphtheria, whooping cough, viral hepatitis B, hemophilic infection and poliomyelitis.||Vaccination is carried out in accordance with the rules established by the legislation of the Russian Federation and instructions for the use of drugs.|
Vaccination calendar for children under 3 years
What vaccinations are given to a child per year? The order and timing of vaccination of one-year-old babies is regulated by the vaccination schedule for children under 3 years of age.
|Age||Vaccination name||Procedure and recommendations|
|Children age 12 months||Vaccination is carried out in accordance with the rules established by the legislation of the Russian Federation and instructions for the use of drugs.|
|Children age 15 months||First revaccination from pneumococcal infection||Vaccination is carried out in accordance with the rules established by the legislation of the Russian Federation and instructions for the use of drugs for children vaccinated in the first year of life.|
|Children aged 18 months||First revaccination from whooping cough, tetanus, diphtheria, polio and hemophilic infection||Vaccination is carried out in accordance with the rules established by the legislation of the Russian Federation and instructions for the use of drugs for children vaccinated in the first year of life.|
|Children aged 20 months||Second revaccination against polio||Vaccination is carried out in accordance with the rules established by the legislation of the Russian Federation and instructions for the use of drugs for children vaccinated in the first year of life.|
At the age of 6-7 years, the child is given a booster shot from mumps, rubella and measlesas well as a second revaccination against tetanus and diphtheria. At 7 years old, the child is revaccinated against tuberculosis.
Adolescents at 14 years of age are revaccinated against polio, tetanus and diphtheria. At the age of 18 do revaccination against tetanus and diphtheriathat a person needs to repeat every subsequent 10 years of life.
In addition to the national calendar of compulsory childhood vaccinations, there is also a vaccination schedule for epidemic indications, which requires vaccination against:
- Tularemia people living in areas with an increased risk of contracting this disease and engaged in irrigation and drainage, agriculture, logging, as well as engaged in geological or survey, fishing, pest control and those who are in direct contact with active pathogens of the disease (medical workers, researchers )
- Plague people who are in direct contact with the active pathogens of the disease.
- Brutsulleza people who work in animal husbandry (with goats or sheep) and meat procurement, as well as those who are in direct contact with the active pathogens of the disease.
- Anthrax people involved in irrigation and drainage, agriculture and animal husbandry, zoo workers, builders working with soil, as well as those who are in direct contact with active pathogens.
- Rabies people working with animals (veterinarian, rangers, rangers), as well as those who are in direct contact with the active pathogens of the disease.
- Leptospirosis people working in animal husbandry, in the service of catching stray animals, as well as those who are in direct contact with the active causative agents of the disease.
- Tick-borne viral encephalitis people living in the territories of the spread of the disease, working in agriculture and animal husbandry, builders and people doing work on the open ground (land reclamators, surveyors, etc.), as well as those who are in direct contact with the active pathogens of the disease.
- Yellow fever, cholera, fever kupeople who often travel to the places of spread of this disease, as well as those who are in direct contact with the active pathogens of the disease.
- Typhoid fever people working in the field of public utilities, as well as those who are in direct contact with the active pathogens of the disease.
- Viral hepatitis A people who, due to their work responsibilities, are at occupational risk of infection (doctors, medical staff, workers in the food sector, services, utilities), as well as those who are in direct contact with active pathogens.
- Shigellosispeople working in the field of catering, working in bacteriological and stationary laboratories.
Side effects of polio vaccination
As we said earlier, the reaction of the body to a particular vaccine is purely individual. Unfortunately, side effects cannot be avoided. Since we are all unique, our immune systems respond differently to vaccinations.
However, as they say in the people, "aware, then armed." Therefore, let's analyze the main adverse reactions of the most common vaccinations. And we will start with the possible side effects of the vaccine against polio.
Cerebral Palsy or polio is an acute infectious disease in which poliovirus infects the gray matter of the spinal cord. For this disease, multiple pathologies of the nervous system are characteristic. The danger of poliomyelitis lies in the fact that at the initial stage, a person seems to have just caught a cold.
The risk group is children aged from six months to six years. The virus is transmitted by airborne droplets ("unwashed hands" disease, transmitted by insects) and progresses very quickly. Penetrating into the body through the oral cavity, poliomyelitis multiplies and grows stronger in the intestine, gradually affecting nerve cells and the gray membrane of the spinal cord.
Ultimately, whole muscle groups atrophy, and nerve cells die, and the child develops severe forms of paralysis. Symptoms of polio are similar to signs ARVI (temperature may rise, cough and runny nose appear, diarrhea is sometimes possible). After a few days, the symptoms of the disease disappear, and the person seems completely healthy.
However, after several days, flaccid paralysis of the limbs develops, when the child cannot stand on his feet. In one-year-old babies, it can paralyze the respiratory tract, which can lead to suffocation and cardiac arrest. Unfortunately, to date, neither scientists nor doctors have been able to offer a treatment regimen that would help put children with polio on their feet.
Experts believe that it is most effective to prevent the child from becoming infected with the disease, and, therefore, to be vaccinated against spinal paralysis during the time. Of course, the vaccine has side effects, like all medicines, but they are extremely rare. In the production of polio vaccines, a weakened or pre-killed virus is used that provokes the immune system to produce antibodies that can defeat the disease.
There are two main ways to vaccinate against polio:
- when an inactivated vaccine is administered by injection;
- when using drops that are administered to the child through the oral cavity (oral).
It is believed that due to the fact that in nature the virus multiplies in the intestine, the risk of developing side effects of drops from polio is much higher in comparison with the administration of the drug intramuscularly. On the other hand, when the vaccine is administered orally, it develops a stronger immunity against the disease.
The polio vaccine contains three major strains of the virus. It helps develop a child’s lifelong immunity from the disease.
Possible side effects of vaccination:
- local reactions in the form of redness, formation of thickening or edema;
- general weakness;
- increased body temperature (up to 38.5 ° C);
- an allergic reaction to the components of the vaccine.
Doctors say that with the right preparation for vaccination and in the absence of any contraindications, polio vaccination is absolutely safe. Development cases vaccine-associated poliomyelitis may occur if a person:
- congenital immunodeficiency;
- malformations of the gastrointestinal tract;
- are available malignant neoplasms;
- neurological disorders;
- HIV or AIDS.
Side effects of rubella vaccine
Rubellais a viral disease characterized by symptoms such as: a red rash on the entire surface of the body, pharyngitis, headachesfever as well conjunctivitis. Most often, the virus infects children who have the disease in a much milder form than adults, especially pregnant women.
As is the case with other infectious diseases, doctors do not have any one effective rubella remedy for which symptomatic therapy is used. That is, they alleviate the symptoms of the disease and help the immune system organism to defeat the virus that caused rubella.
Vaccination is considered the most effective way to prevent and treat the disease. As a rubella vaccine use:
- combination drugs MMR or Priorixwhich besides rubella contain attenuated viruses mumps and measles;
- one-shot vaccinations Rudivax, Hervevax and a vaccine containing live virus.
It is believed that it is a multicomponent vaccine that is more difficult to tolerate by the child's body and can give complications and side effects in the form of:
- redness, edema or a seal at the injection site;
- enlarged lymph nodes (neck, armpits) located next to the injection zone;
- general weakness;
- joint pain.
In some cases (for example, if the vaccination was carried out without taking into account contraindications), the vaccinated person may develop a rash (violet, red), develop a severe allergic reaction, or vaccine-associated rubella.
Contraindications for rubella vaccination:
- the presence of a history of complications after previous rubella vaccinations;
- allergic to aminoglycosides, neomycinor other components of the vaccine;
- congenital or acquired immunodeficiency state (AIDS, HIV, thrombocytopeniapathology of the circulatory system);
- period lactation;
- acute infectious processes;
- exacerbation of chronic pathologies;
- the reception corticosteroids.
To refrain from vaccination until the body is completely restored is for people who have recently had a blood transfusion or those who have had surgery.
Side effects of tetanus shots
Tetanus - This is an acute infectious disease in which the nervous system is affected and generalized seizures occur against the background of tonic tension of skeletal muscles. The infection enters the body through open wounds, burns, with frostbite, with damage to the mucous membranes, as well as with some inflammatory diseases accompanied by gangrene, skin ulcers, abscesses and bedsores.
Contraindications to vaccination:
- allergic reaction on the previous vaccination;
- individual intolerance of some component of the vaccine (tetanus toxoid, thiomersal, aluminum hydroxide);
- congenital or acquired immunodeficiency due to disease (AIDS, HIV);
- ARVI, ARIexacerbation of chronic diseases;
- aggravation neuralgic diseases;
- pregnancy and lactation.
Side effects of vaccination against tetanusin adults, as in children, can be expressed in the following adverse reactions:
- increase in body temperature;
- strong headache;
- inhibited reaction or vice versa increased excitability;
- loss of appetite;
- local reactions in the form of seals, redness or swelling at the injection site.
The above listed complications can go away on their own without any serious consequences.
Urgently seek medical help when:
- at the injection site, swelling larger than 8 cm was formed;
- a strong allergic reaction (Quincke's edema, rash throughout the body);
- have appeared crampsthat can lead to encephalopathy.
Side effects of diphtheria vaccine
Diphtheria is an acute infectious disease that affects bronchi, oropharynx, larynxas well as skin. Complicated forms of the disease also harm other organs. In children, a frequent complication of diphtheria is considered croup(edema and obstruction of the airways).
For the treatment of diphtheria bacillus use a special serum containing diphtheria antitoxin. However, vaccination is considered the most effective way to prevent the disease, for example, DTP or ADS.
Since the frequency of vaccinations from diphtheria and tetanus, as well as whooping cough coincides, then a complex adsorbed pertussis-diphtheria-tetanus vaccine is used for all three diseases (abbreviated as DTP). The second type of ADS vaccine is used in cases where a person has contraindications for pertussis vaccination.
Following vaccination against diphtheria, the following adverse reactions may occur:
- general weakness;
- local reactions in the form of redness, swelling, painful compaction;
- allergic reaction.
According to doctors, a diphtheria vaccine is one of the safest and most easily tolerated vaccines. Adverse reactions, from which it is comparable to a common cold, but the effectiveness is so high that it helps if the disease is not prevented in 100% of cases, then ensure its mild form.
Side effects of vaccination against hemophilic infection
Hemophilic infection is a group of infectious diseases (meningitis, pneumonia, otitis, purulent arthritis, septicemia), which affect mainly the central nervous and respiratory system and are accompanied by the development of purulent foci in the internal organs.
The vaccination against hemophilic infections in the vast majority of cases is easily tolerated. However, side effects such as:
- redness and slight swelling at the injection site;
- slight increase in body temperature;
- decreased appetite;
- general weakness;
- bad dream.
In the case of using a multicomponent or complex vaccine for vaccination against hemophilic infection, complications such as:
- allergic reaction (urticaria, Quincke's edema);
- edemalower limbs;
- neuritis brachial nerve.
To avoid complications and side effects, you should strictly adhere to the rules for preparing for vaccination, which we talked about earlier, and also not to be vaccinated if there are contraindications.
Side effects of tularemia vaccination
Tularemiais a zooanthropic (i.e., common to humans and animals) infectious disease that affects the lymphatic system of the body and is accompanied by fever and general intoxication. Carriers of the disease are voles, rabbits, water rats and hares.
A person becomes infected through direct contact with animals (hunting), or through contaminated food and water. Also, the bloodsucking arthropods (mosquitoes, ticks, horseflies) carry the infection. As a rule, vaccination against tularemia is given to those people who live in the area where the focus of this disease is fixed.
Following vaccination against tularemia, the following side effects may occur:
- edema and redness at the injection site;
- soreness and short-term increase lymph nodes;
- a slight increase in body temperature;
- common weakness;